Hong Kong's embattled leader, Carrie Lam, leaves for a visit to Japan on Monday as the Chinese-ruled city struggles to recover from a night of violence in which tens of thousands took to the streets, with further protests planned later in the day.
Lam is to attend Emperor Naruhito's enthronement ceremony in Tokyo's imperial palace on Tuesday and return home that evening.
Early on Monday, Hong Kong embarked on a massive clean-up after a largely peaceful protest degenerated into violence across districts on the Kowloon peninsula, where protesters torched stores and sprayed graffiti on roads, amid skirmishes with police.
After two weeks of relative calm in the five-month-long political crisis, Sunday's large turnout reflected strong support for the anti-government movement despite police branding the march illegal, because of concerns over public safety.
Families and the elderly took to the streets of the Asian financial hub in what began as a peaceful march, many wearing masks or carrying umbrellas to shield their faces, despite the threat of being arrested.
However, a more radical faction of mainly young protesters later clashed with riot police.
They targeted banks and other businesses perceived to be linked to China, damaging some storefronts and setting fires on the prime shopping and commercial street of Nathan Road in the heart of the Kowloon peninsula.
Protesters say they will keep up pressure on the government to act on their demands for universal suffrage, an independent inquiry into police behaviour, amnesty for those charged, and an end to describing protesters as rioters.
Metro operator MTR Corp said it would shut the rural Yuen Long station by 2 pm, ahead of a protest planned there later on Monday.
Several subway entrances and exits would also be shut, and the entire network would close by 10 pm, or two hours early, to allow time for the repair of facilities, the operator said.