Washington has continued to pile fresh sanctions on Russia that began over its military intervention in Ukraine, while Turkey also faced penalties this year over the detention of an American pastor.
'We are all punished'
Trump has also cancelled hundreds of millions of dollars in aid to Pakistan, accusing it of failing to crack down on militancy.
"When they put pressure on China's trade, we are all harmed... By punishing Turkey, we are all punished. Any time they threaten Russia, we too consider our security to be endangered," Rouhani said.
"When they impose sanctions on Iran, they deprive all of us of the benefits of international trade, energy security and sustainable development. And in fact, they impose sanctions on everyone.
"We are here to say that we don't intend to tolerate such insolence."
Rouhani warned Europe which has strongly objected to the US withdrawal from the nuclear deal that much is at stake in its efforts to bypass US sanctions and maintain trade with Iran.
"They should know that by sanctioning Iran, they would harm our ability to fight drugs and terrorism," Rouhani said, referring to Iran's efforts to combat smuggling, particularly from Afghanistan.
The European Union is working on a payment system, known as the "special purpose vehicle", to keep money flowing into Iran, but has struggled to find a host since many countries fear repercussions from the Trump administration.
Addressing parliament speakers from Afghanistan, China, Pakistan, Russia and Turkey, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani said they had all suffered economic pressure from the US.