Remain supporters celebrated outside parliament on news that May's deal was rejected, but a leave supporter called the process of exiting the European Union a "farce".
The vote puts the world's fifth largest economy in uncharted territory with no obvious way forward; exiting the EU without a deal, delaying the March 29 divorce date, a snap election or even another referendum are all now possible.
In a tweet, the European Union's Brexit negotiator Michel Barnier said the EU will not negotiate Brexit again.
"Listening to debate in @HouseofCommons : there seems to be a dangerous illusion that the UK can benefit from a transition in the absence of the WA (Withdrawal Agreement). Let me be clear: the only legal basis for a transition is the WA. No withdrawal agreement means no transition," Barnier wrote on his Twitter page.
In a separate tweet, Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte said he regretted the outcome of the vote adding that the "EU continues to stand by the Withdrawal Agreement, including the backstop."
The bloc insists the divorce deal - already rejected by parliament in January - will not be revisited.
It expects Prime Minister Theresa May to ask for a delay to Brexit to avoid economic disruption should Britain leave with no plan in place.
Remain supporters celebrated outside parliament on news that May's deal was rejected, but a leave supporter called the process of exiting the European Union a 'farce'.