"We waited for a year," Rouhani told a televised news conference.
"Nobody in the world can blame us by saying 'Why are you abandoning your commitments under the JCPOA today and why have you launched Fordow today?'" he said.
"This is a problem that the enemy has created for us," he said, referring to Iran's arch-foe the United States.
Iran's approach, he said, was to take "the path of resistance and perseverance" by reducing commitments under the JCPOA and engaging in negotiations.
"We are negotiating with the world... they are giving us proposals, we're giving them proposals. Up until today, I have not accepted the proposals I've been given."
Rouhani made no mention of the uranium particles the International Atomic Energy Agency said its inspectors had detected at an undeclared site in Iran.
In a report seen by AFP on Monday, the watchdog said its inspectors had "detected natural uranium particles of anthropogenic origin at a location in Iran not declared to the agency."
The particles are understood to be the product of uranium which has been mined and undergone initial processing, but not enriched.
While the IAEA itself has not named the site in question, diplomatic sources have previously said the agency has been posing questions to Iran relating to a site where Israel has alleged secret atomic activity in the past.
Britain, France, Germany and the EU said that they were "extremely concerned".
Britain, France, Germany and the EU have been trying to salvage the 2015 Iran nuclear deal since the US unilaterally withdrew from it