Colombia-FARC conflict: A timeline

WION
New Delhi, India Updated: Jun 24, 2016, 09:46 AM(IST)

The assassination of the left-wing Mayor of Bogota and presidential hopeful Jorge Eli?cer Gait?n leads to riots and to a period of civil strife known as ?La Violencia? between 1948-57. Photograph:( Getty )

1819: Sim?n Bol?var defeats Spanish army to set up the Republic of Gran Colombia with Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela, as well as Colombia.

1948: The assassination of the left-wing Mayor of Bogota and presidential hopeful Jorge Eli?cer Gait?n leads to riots and to a period of civil strife known as ‘La Violencia’ until 1957. 250,000-300,000 are killed in civil war.

1958: 'National Front' formed by Liberals and Conservatives for a period of sixteen years - till 1974 in a bid to end the civil war.

1958-1978: Top-level political agreement to establish a ‘National Front’, whereby all government offices are shared between Liberals and Conservatives.

1964: Leftist National Liberation Army (ELN) and Maoist People’s Liberation Army (EPL) is formed.

1966: Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) founded.

1971: M-19, a left-wing guerrilla group formed.

1978: Fierce fighting against drug traffickers is launched by President Julio Turbay of Liberal party.

1982-1985: President Belisario Betancur grants amnesty to guerrillas and releases political prisoners. M-19 guerrillas kill over 100 including 11 judges in Palace of Justice.

1985: FARC and the Colombian Communist Party form Left Patriotic Union Party (UP)

1986: President Virgilio Barco Vargas. Paramilitary groups begin a campaign against UP.

1989: M-19 becomes a legal political party (M-19 Democratic Alliance) following a peace agreement with the government. Liberal and UP presidential candidates murdered.

1991: New Colombian Constitution prohibits extradition of Colombian citizens, guarantees indigenous peoples' democratic rights, but does not address their territorial claims

1993: Medellin drug cartel leader Pablo Escobar shot dead by security forces.

1997: The United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia (AUC) is established, a coalition of right-wing paramilitary groupings.

1999: President Andres Pastrana Arango begins peace talks with guerrillas.

2000: Talks stalled as Government alleges that FARC harboured hijacker of the plane. FARC refuses to resume talks later.

2001: FARC returns to talks. Pastrana extends demilitarized area for eight months. FARC frees 350 police and troops in exchange for 14 captured rebels. Government and FARC sign a San Francisco agreement for a ceasefire.

2002: Pastrana calls off talks with FARC. Govt. declares war zone after rebel step up attacks.

2002 May: Alvaro Uribe wins Prez elections, promises to crack down hard on rebel groups.

2002: Uribe declares a state of emergency after 20 people are killed in a blast in Bogota.

2003: AUC begins to disarm.

2004: Senior Colombian guerrilla FARC's Ricardo Palmera jailed for 35 years. Right wing AUC and govt. begin talks.

2005: Exploratory Talks with National Liberation Army (ELN) begin in Cuba.

2006: Uribe wins a second term.

2007: Government releases jailed FARC guerrillas. But FARC refuses to release hostages. Says it will release hostages only if govt. pulls back troops and sets up demilitarised zones.

2007: Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez agrees to invite rebels for talks on hostage deal. 31 Dec, set as a deadline to reach a deal.

2008: A Colombian cross-border strike into Ecuador kills senior FARC rebel leading into diplomatic crisis with both Ecuador and Venezuela

2008: Colombian army rescues Ingrid Betancourt, held in captivity for 6 years by FARC.

2009: President Uribe offers FARC rebels peace talks if they halt their criminal activities and declare a ceasefire.

2009: Relations between Venezuela and Colombia deteriorate. Colombia accuses Venezuela of supplying arms to FARC, Venezuela, in turn, accuses Colombia of carrying out military incursion.

2009: FARC and ELN announce a collaboration against the armed forces.

2010: Juan Manuel Santos elected as new Prez. Colombian army kills FARC commander Mono Jojoy.

2011: FARC releases hostages and describes it as a unilateral "gesture of peace" to the government. Military kills FARC leader Alfonso Cano. Timoleon Jimenez becomes the new leader of the guerrilla group.

2012: President Santos says talks are underway between FARC, ELN. A law approving peace talks passed by Congress. FARC declares a 2-month ceasefire.

2014: Santos wins another term as President.

2015: President says ready for a bilateral ceasefire with FARC.

2016: Talks end in Havana with government and FARC signing a bilateral ceasefire.Final deal signed on 23rd June.
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