1819: Sim?n Bol?var defeats Spanish army to set up the Republic of Gran Colombia with Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela, as well as Colombia.
1948: The assassination of the left-wing Mayor of Bogota and presidential hopeful Jorge Eli?cer Gait?n leads to riots and to a period of civil strife known as ‘La Violencia’ until 1957. 250,000-300,000 are killed in civil war.
1958: 'National Front' formed by Liberals and Conservatives for a period of sixteen years - till 1974 in a bid to end the civil war.
1958-1978: Top-level political agreement to establish a ‘National Front’, whereby all government offices are shared between Liberals and Conservatives.
1964: Leftist National Liberation Army (ELN) and Maoist People’s Liberation Army (EPL) is formed.
1966: Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) founded.
1971: M-19, a left-wing guerrilla group formed.
1978: Fierce fighting against drug traffickers is launched by President Julio Turbay of Liberal party.
1982-1985: President Belisario Betancur grants amnesty to guerrillas and releases political prisoners. M-19 guerrillas kill over 100 including 11 judges in Palace of Justice.
1985: FARC and the Colombian Communist Party form Left Patriotic Union Party (UP)
1986: President Virgilio Barco Vargas. Paramilitary groups begin a campaign against UP.
1989: M-19 becomes a legal political party (M-19 Democratic Alliance) following a peace agreement with the government. Liberal and UP presidential candidates murdered.
1991: New Colombian Constitution prohibits extradition of Colombian citizens, guarantees indigenous peoples' democratic rights, but does not address their territorial claims
1993: Medellin drug cartel leader Pablo Escobar shot dead by security forces.
1997: The United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia (AUC) is established, a coalition of right-wing paramilitary groupings.
1999: President Andres Pastrana Arango begins peace talks with guerrillas.
2000: Talks stalled as Government alleges that FARC harboured hijacker of the plane. FARC refuses to resume talks later.
2001: FARC returns to talks. Pastrana extends demilitarized area for eight months. FARC frees 350 police and troops in exchange for 14 captured rebels. Government and FARC sign a San Francisco agreement for a ceasefire.
2002: Pastrana calls off talks with FARC. Govt. declares war zone after rebel step up attacks.
2002 May: Alvaro Uribe wins Prez elections, promises to crack down hard on rebel groups.
2002: Uribe declares a state of emergency after 20 people are killed in a blast in Bogota.
2003: AUC begins to disarm.
2004: Senior Colombian guerrilla FARC's Ricardo Palmera jailed for 35 years. Right wing AUC and govt. begin talks.
2005: Exploratory Talks with National Liberation Army (ELN) begin in Cuba.
2006: Uribe wins a second term.
2007: Government releases jailed FARC guerrillas. But FARC refuses to release hostages. Says it will release hostages only if govt. pulls back troops and sets up demilitarised zones.
2007: Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez agrees to invite rebels for talks on hostage deal. 31 Dec, set as a deadline to reach a deal.
2008: A Colombian cross-border strike into Ecuador kills senior FARC rebel leading into diplomatic crisis with both Ecuador and Venezuela
2008: Colombian army rescues Ingrid Betancourt, held in captivity for 6 years by FARC.
2009: President Uribe offers FARC rebels peace talks if they halt their criminal activities and declare a ceasefire.
2009: Relations between Venezuela and Colombia deteriorate. Colombia accuses Venezuela of supplying arms to FARC, Venezuela, in turn, accuses Colombia of carrying out military incursion.
2009: FARC and ELN announce a collaboration against the armed forces.
2010: Juan Manuel Santos elected as new Prez. Colombian army kills FARC commander Mono Jojoy.
2011: FARC releases hostages and describes it as a unilateral "gesture of peace" to the government. Military kills FARC leader Alfonso Cano. Timoleon Jimenez becomes the new leader of the guerrilla group.
2012: President Santos says talks are underway between FARC, ELN. A law approving peace talks passed by Congress. FARC declares a 2-month ceasefire.
2014: Santos wins another term as President.
2015: President says ready for a bilateral ceasefire with FARC.
2016: Talks end in Havana with government and FARC signing a bilateral ceasefire.Final deal signed on 23rd June.