Barbados-born Archer only became qualified for England in March and has played just three one-day internationals.
He edged out left-arm quick David Willey, a veteran of 46 ODIs, after both pacemen featured during England's 4-0 series win at home to Pakistan which concluded Sunday.
There was no place also in a squad again captained by Eoin Morgan for back-up spinner and batsman Joe Denly, with Hampshire slow left-arm Liam Dawson -- who did not feature against Pakistan -- recalled as cover for Adil Rashid and Moeen Ali.
James Vince came in for Alex Hales after England decided against picking the Nottinghamshire batsman following a ban for recreational drug use.
England, the world's top-ranked ODI side, are bidding to win the World Cup for the first time.
They launch the tournament against South Africa at The Oval on May 30.
England World Cup squad:
Eoin Morgan (c), Moeen Ali, Jofra Archer, Jonny Bairstow, Jos Buttler (wk), Tom Curran, Liam Dawson, Liam Plunkett, Adil Rashid, Joe Root, Jason Roy, Ben Stokes, James Vince, Chris Woakes, Mark Wood
James Vince came in for Alex Hales after England decided against picking the Nottinghamshire batsman following a ban for recreational drug use