The biggest vote against was against a second referendum.
A call to enter a customs union with the European Union meanwhile fared the best, losing by 272-264, while members voted 295-268 against a motion requiring the eventual Withdrawal Agreement to be submitted to a referendum.
The option of revoking the United Kingdom's Article 50 declaration that it intended to leave the bloc was defeated by 109 votes.
At the other end of the spectrum, 240 members opposed the idea of a no-deal Brexit.
The options being voted on included negotiating for closer economic ties with the EU after Brexit, holding a public vote on any deal or stopping Brexit altogether.
Earlier, May told her conservative lawmakers that she would step down before the "next phase" of Brexit negotiations.
MPs have twice rejected May's Brexit deal, both times by large majorities, but she is still trying to convince them and on Wednesday made what is expected to be her final offer.
"I know there is a desire for a new approach -- and new leadership -- in the second phase of the Brexit negotiations and I won't stand in the way of that," she told a packed meeting of her Conservative MPs.
"But we need to get the deal through and deliver Brexit. I am prepared to leave this job earlier than I intended in order to do what is right for our country and our party."