Britain has never apologised for the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre at Amritsar but the head of the Church of England prostrated himself to say sorry in a personal capacity and "in the name of Christ".
British troops fired on thousands of unarmed men, women and children in Amritsar on April 13, 1919, killing 379 people according to colonial-era records. Indian figures put the total closer to 1,000.
"I can't speak for the British Government as I am not an official of the British Government. But I can speak in the name of Christ," Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby said as he visited the location in northern India on Tuesday.