Timeline: South Sudan's bloody first decade

As fighting erupts between rival factions in South Sudan, threatening to destabilise the fragile democracy, we look back at the world's youngest country's bloody first decade, marred by a civil war that claimed 380,000 lives.

(Text: AFP)

2011: New nation 

On July 9, South Sudan proclaims itself independent from Sudan following six years of autonomy and two decades of war.

The president is Salva Kiir, with Riek Machar as his deputy. From different ethnic groups, the rivals also led the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) that spearheaded the push for independence.

The new South Sudan takes over three-quarters of the oil reserves of the old Sudan while Khartoum retains control of all pipeline and export facilities.

Other thorny issues are the tracing of the new border and the status of disputed regions such as oil-rich Abyei.

(Photograph:AFP)

2012: Oil clashes 

The countries clash between March and May over rights to the oil fields around Heglig, a town just inside Sudan.

South Sudanese troops briefly occupy the area, which accounts for half of Sudan's crude oil production.

Arguments erupt over pipeline transit costs and Sudan confiscates millions of barrels of South Sudan crude.

South Sudan halts its production in January for more than a year, accusing Khartoum of theft.

(Photograph:AFP)

2013: Civil war 

Kiir fires Machar and all government ministers, their deputies and several police brigadiers on July 23.

Machar later accuses him of "dictatorial" behaviour.

After a night of fighting in the capital Juba, Kiir says on December 16 his forces had thwarted an attempted coup by Machar, who denies the claim.

Rival army units clash in Juba. The fighting spreads beyond the capital, fuelled by rivalries between Kiir's Dinka group and Machar's Nuer.

It sets off tit-for-tat massacres that turn into five years of war, which saw thousands getting displaced.

(Photograph:AFP)

2016: Leader in exile 

Machar and Kiir sign a peace accord in August 2015 that provides for Machar's reappointment as vice president.

He returns to Juba and is sworn in on April 26, 2016.

But fighting between supporters of both leaders breaks out again in July. Machar goes into exile, accusing Kiir of trying to have him killed.

(Photograph:AFP)

2020: Slow progress 

However, sporadic fighting continues.

The UN several times extends its peace mission, as well as an arms embargo.

In June 2020 Kiir and Machar agree on control of the country's 10 states, the main remaining sticking point.

(Photograph:AFP)

2018: Peace deal 

Kiir and Machar meet for the first time in two years on June 20. 

On September 12 they sign a new peace agreement to end a war that has killed more than 380,000 people and displaced roughly four million.

It paves the way for a power-sharing government which is eventually installed in March 2020, with Machar again vice president.

(Photograph:AFP)

2021: Violence flares 

A UN report in April warns that the slow pace of implementing the peace accord risks a relapse into "large-scale conflict".

On May 8, after a delay of more than a year, Kiir includes opposition lawmakers in a new parliament.

The final drafting of a constitution begins on May 25.

(Photograph:AFP)

2021: Discontent

Barely 19 weeks later, growing murmurs of discontent in Machar's camp come to a head, when a rival faction of his party led by General Simon Gatwech Dual announces his ouster as chief, accusing him of failing to represent their interests.

Machar insists he remains in full control and dismisses the "peace spoilers", who he says are out to derail the formation of a unified national army, a key component of the agreement that ended the civil war. 

Within days, fresh fighting erupts between the two sides, according to Machar's military spokesman, who says forces loyal to the 68-year-old have fended off an alleged attack by Dual's camp.

(Photograph:AFP)

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