Some days, all Tsimamorekm Aly eats is sugary water. He's happy if there's a handful of rice. But with six young kids and a wife to support, he often goes without.
This is the fourth year that drought has devastated Aly's home in southern Madagascar. Now more than one million people, or two out of five residents, of his Grand Sud region require emergency food aid in what the United Nations is calling a "climate change famine."
"In previous years there was rain, a lot of rain. I grew sweet potatoes and I had a lot of money... I even got married because I was rich," said Aly, 44.
"Things have changed," he said, standing on an expanse of ochre dirt where the only green to be seen is tall, spiky cacti.
At peace but starving
Conflict has been a central cause of famine and hunger in countries such as Ethiopia, South Sudan, Somalia and Yemen. Due to the fighting, people stopped moving to find food.
But Madagascar is at peace.
Half million children face acute malnourishment
"In some villages, the last proper rain was three years ago, in others, eight years ago or even 10 years ago," said Rahmoun. "Fields are bare, seeds do not sprout and there is no food."
Half a million children are expected to be acutely malnourished in southern Madagascar, 110,000 severely so, the U.N. Children's Fund says, causing developmental delays, disease and death.
Climate change accentuates the famine
"The situation in the south of the country is really worrying," said Alice Rahmoun, a spokeswoman with the United Nations' World Food Programme in Madagascar. "I visited several districts... and heard from families how the changing climate has driven them to hunger."
The country produces less than 0.01% of global carbon dioxide emissions, the World Carbon Project says.
Erratic rainfall patterns
Rainfall patterns in Madagascar are growing more erratic – they've been below average for nearly six years, said researchers at the University of California at Santa Barbara.
"In some villages, the last proper rain was three years ago, in others, eight years ago or even 10 years ago," said Alice Rahmoun, a spokeswoman with the United Nations' World Food Programme in Madagascar. "Fields are bare, seeds do not sprout and there is no food."
Temperatures in southern Africa are rising at double the global rate, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change says. Cyclones, already more frequent in Madagascar than any other African country, are likely getting stronger as the earth warms, the U.S. government says.