India-China standoff: September 8, 1962; When Chinese troops first entered eastern Ladakh

Mao had already hatched a plan to attack India in the upper Himalayas in order to blunt Nehru's 'Forward Policy' to 'make it clear who is right and who is wrong.'

Hostilities between two Asian giants

The LAC flareup may have occurred in June this year but China’s PLA first entered eastern Ladakh illegally on 8th September, 1962 over a month before hostilities broke out between the two Asian giants on October, 20, 1962.

(Photograph:Twitter)

China's incursion

On September 8, 1962, PLA troops began taking positions inside Indian territory but Indian troops did not immediately open fire- a decision the Indian government under PM Nehru came to regret when war broke out just over 30 days later.

Is the latest Chinese incursion a prelude towards a greater confrontation?

(Photograph:AFP)

T90s guard the Spanggur pass at Chuasal

India has been moving its T20 tank divisions along the newly built roads, and also ferring them through the air, reports claim.

The T-90 tanks played a crucial role during the confrontation on August 29 as the Bishma's were set out to guard the strategic Spanggur pass at Chuasal.

(Photograph:AFP)

Spanggur Tso saltwater lake

Spanggur Tso saltwater lake lies south of the Pangong Tso lake. It falls under Tibet occupied by Chinese forces and the contentious Aksai Chin lies on the western part of the lake. 

As a matter of fact, Indian forces conducted joint exercise at the Chushul garrison in 2016 along with Chinese troops of Moldo garrison in eastern Ladakh under the provisions of Border Defense Cooperation Agreement, 2013.

(Photograph:AFP)

PLA'S extensive surveillance

The Chinese considered No.1 Post to be inside their 1959 claim line.

The Indian posts were isolated with Chinese troop deployment.

The Chinese troops had carried out extensive surveillance of the area as they launched a coordinated attack to encircle the Indian army which was already low on supply and manpower.

(Photograph:AFP)

Nehru's "Forward Policy"

The Indian government headed by Jawaharlal Nehru had devised the "Forward Policy" in the backdrop of Dalai Lama’s escape to India from Tibet in 1959 which laid the groundwork for India's aggressive stance towards China in the upper Himalayas.

Indian forces were defeated in the battle for Pangong after China launched an attack on October 20, 1962. Although the Indian troops fought bravely but were overrun by a better prepared Chinese outfit which had planned its steps well in advance.

(Photograph:AFP)

Mao's plan: 'Make it clear who is right and who is wrong'

Mao had already hatched a plan to attack India in the upper Himalayas in order to blunt Nehru's "Forward Policy" to "make it clear who is right and who is wrong."

The Chinese troops moved in to capture India's key ‘Sirijap Compex’ during the 1962 war in a series of well-planned manoeuvers.

The Chinese troops launched a sly night attack on ‘Indian Strongholds No 1, 2 and 3 in Ali Area’ as they looked to encircle and cut off the Indian troops, although the Indian Army put up stubborn resistance but could not repel the PLA.

(Photograph:AFP)

Coordinated attack to encircle Indian army

The Chinese considered No.1 Post to be inside their 1959 claim line.

The Indian posts were isolated with Chinese troop deployment.

The Chinese troops had carried out extensive surveillance of the area as they launched a coordinated attack to encircle the Indian army which was already low on supply and manpower.

(Photograph:AFP)

Strategic highway

China is likely to continue to make Pangong a flashpoint due to the Chinese highway touching the end of Pangong Tso inside China-controlled Aksai Chin. 

The Xi regime is never likely to give India the initiative to cutoff the strategic highway which would hamper the movement of Chinese troops in Aksai Chin up to Xinjiang.

(Photograph:AFP)

Finger 4 in Pangong Tso

The contentious Finger 4 of Pangong Tso lake has become the bone of contention between the two sides now after the Galwan Valley clash in June and the Doklam standoff in 2017. 

India and Chinese military commanders had agreed that PLA would vacate the Finger 4 in Pangong Tso area as part of the disengagement process but it still remains China's priority, much like in the 1962 war.

(Photograph:AFP)

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