Pant's rollicking run-chase ensured India pulled off a thrilling win to hand Australia their first defeat at Brisbane's Gabba ground since 1988.
Wicketkeeper Rishabh Pant starred with a swashbuckling 89 not out as the injury-depleted visitors overhauled the 328-run target with three overs to go, winning by three wickets.
India pulled off a record run-chase in a thrilling final session to hand Australia their first defeat at Brisbane's Gabba ground since 1988 and clinch the four-Test series 2-1 on Tuesday.
Australia had not been beaten at the Gabba since falling to Viv Richards' all-conquering West Indies side by nine wickets in November 1988.
India's 329 for seven also smashed the 69-year-old record for the biggest run-chase at the Gabba, set by Australia who scored 236 for seven to beat the West Indies in 1951.
The series win was a remarkable achievement considering India were bowled out for their lowest Test score of 36 to lose the first Test in Adelaide, before bouncing back to win the second in Melbourne.
The visitors, ravaged by injuries and captain Virat Kohli's absence for paternity leave, then batted throughout the final day to draw the third Test in Sydney.
Man-of-the-match Pant, who played a similar innings in the drawn Sydney Test, blasted his 89 from 138 balls with nine fours and a six.
His innings followed an equally impressive knock from 21-year-old Shubman Gill, who made 91 at the top of the order earlier in the day.
Pant took advantage of any loose ball, but also played some outrageous strokes, showing the influence T20 cricket has had on Tests.
India looked in control through the final session and despite losing three wickets in the last hour, they cruised home with three overs to spare when Pant hit the winning four off Hazlewood.
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Needing 328 to pull off a historic win at the Gabba, injury-hit India were 183 for three at the break, with Pujara not out on 43 and Rishabh Pant on 10.
While a draw was still the most likely outcome, the visitors' decision to send Pant in ahead of Mayank Agarwal showed they were eyeing an epochal victory.
Australia were unbeaten at Brisbane's Gabba since 1988, and suffered their first home Test series defeat by India two years ago. .
Australia took two wickets after lunch, with Shubman Gill falling for a superb 91 and skipper Ajinkya Rahane a quickfire 24.
Pujara was hit 10 times during the first two sessions as Pat Cummins and Josh Hazlewood tried to exploit a perceived weakness to short balls at the body.
He took blows to the fingers, arm, ribs and helmet during a searching examination of his technique.
India showed since their disastrous capitulation in the first Test in Adelaide, when they were bowled out for 36, they are never out of the contest at the Gabba.
They came back and won the Boxing Day Test in Melbourne, and then batted for more than a day to draw in the third Test at Sydney.