US, Churchill and The Quit India Movement

While Indian nationalists were gaining momentum for Quit India, there were other forces nullifying their efforts

A confused Roosevelt (Source: Wikipedia)

Quit India Movement had very less international support but Indian nationalists knew that the United States strongly supported Indian independence, in principle.
President Roosevelt was, however, confused at his stance.
He quietly supported the British government while facilitating Indians with propaganda designed to strengthen public support for the war effort.

Subhash Chandra Bose in exile

Subhash Chandra Bose, a prominent Indian freedom fighter was in exile and supporting the Axis Powers.
This led to many students focusing their attention to his works than the Quit India Movement.
Bose organised the Indian Legion in Germany and reorganised the Indian National Army with Japanese assistance. He was soliciting help from the Axis Powers and conducted a guerrilla war against the British authorities.

Indian National Congress leaders became political prisoners

The All-India Congress Committee launched a mass protest demanding what Gandhi called "An Orderly British Withdrawal" from India.
Even though it was wartime, the British were prepared to act.
Almost the entire leadership of the INC was imprisoned without trial within hours of Gandhi's speech.
Most spent the rest of the war in prison and out of contact with the masses.

Opposition within India for the Movement

Quit India Movement, at the time, was failing majorly because of internal factors. British had the support of the Viceroy's Council (which had a majority of Indians), of the All India Muslim League, the princely states, the Indian Imperial Police, the British Indian Army and the Indian Civil Service. It is recorded that many Indian businessmen profiting from heavy wartime spending also did not support Quit India Movement.
The Muslim League opposed the Quit India Movement as it was of the view that if the British left India in its current state, Muslims as a minority would be oppressed by the Hindu majority.
Hindu nationalist parties like the Hindu Mahasabha openly opposed the call for the Quit India Movement and boycotted it officially
Princely states were especially at the forefront of opposition. They not only opposed but funded the opposition. Five states gave a big fight when India got independence and they did not want merge with India, namely, Travancore, Jodhpur, Bhopal, Hyderabad and Junagadh.

Churchill threatens to resign

Although the United States sided with Indian demands, President Roosevelt started quietly supporting Churchill when he threatened to resign if pushed too hard.
However, President Franklin D. Roosevelt pressured Prime Minister Winston Churchill to give in to some of the Indian demands.
The Quit India campaign was effectively crushed.
The British refused to grant immediate independence, saying it could happen only after the war had ended.