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How India has done as a nation in the past 70 years

Research: Saurabh Goenka; Visuals: Ishu Vaid


The population of the country has multiplied around 4 times since Independence with Sex Ration worsening which is a matter of grave concern. The number of deaths in the country has reduced substantially but the number of births has not seen a satisfactory decline.


There has been a great improvement in the literacy rate of India since 1951 which literacy rate improving by 4.4 times. Female Literacy Rate, which used to be very low during independence has also seen a satisfactory jump with around 65 per cent of women in India being literate at present. As compared to 1951, almost the double proportion of kids of 6-14 years goes to school now.

Higher education

The education infrastructure in India has improved with 6.6 times more schools, 66.6 times more colleges and 63.4 times more technical institutes in India since Independence. The number of Universities which stood at 578 in 1951 has increased to 38498 in 2016.

Health infrastructure

Public expenditure on health has seen exponential growth since 1951, however, the infrastructure has not seen sufficient growth. The number of doctors and medical colleges has seen only a 14 times increase in 70 years, while the number of hospital beds just 11 times.


The GDP has multiplied 1460 times since 1951 and were on an average a person earned Rs. 274 then is earning Rs. 103219 now. Foreign Exchange Reserve, Export and Import have also seen a substantial rise. However, import has multiplied more than export which is not a healthy sign.

Sectoral performance

The size of various sectors has multiplied more than 2000 times except for agriculture. Agriculture which used to be the largest sector in India during independence has not expanded as other sectors.


While the length of roads has seen a 14 times increase, a number of registered vehicles using these roads has multiplied 686 times, which is a reason of increasing congestion of roads. Number of phone connections has seen exponential growth with subscribers multiplying 6856 times of 1951 figures.