The missile - the most advanced missile in the Agni series - has a range of 5000 km. It is a surface-to-surface nuclear capable ballistic missile.
The user associate test-flight of the missile has further boosted indigenous missile capabilities and deterrence strength of the country.
All radars, tracking systems and range stations monitored the flight performance, defence sources said.
Agni-V is capable of carrying nuclear warhead of about 1.5 tonnes.
The sleek missile was test-fired from a canister launcher at 9:53am (local time). Describing the trial as "fully successful", the sources said, the sophisticated missile travelled for 19 minutes and covered 4,900 km.
After four successful developmental trials, this was the first user associate test of Agni-5 missile, sources added.
The missile has been developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
The missile is so programmed that after reaching the peak of its trajectory it will turn towards Earth to continue its journey towards the intended target with an increased speed due to the attraction of the earth's gravitational pull, a DRDO official said.
Its path is precisely directed by the advanced on-board computer and inertial navigation system, the official added.
The first two successful flights of Agni-5 in 2012 and 2013 were in open configuration.
India has at present in its armoury of Agni series, Agni-1 with 700 km range, Agni-2 with 2,000 km range, Agni-3 and Agni-4 with 2,500 km to more than 3,500km range.
The first test of Agni-5 was conducted on April 19, 2012, the second on September 15, 2013, the third on January 31, 2015 and fourth trial on December 26, 2016 from the same base.